Are Canadian Nursing Homes Prepared for a Second Wave of COVID-19?

The first wave of COVID-19 in Canada devastated the country’s long-term care and nursing homes. Nationwide, Canadians older than 60 accounted for 96 per cent of all COVID-19 deaths; 80 per cent of all deaths occurred in long-term care facilities. The tragic numbers laid bare that nursing homes in many provinces, including Ontario, are ill-equipped to face serious health emergencies. Family members of deceased and seriously ill residents have sought compensation through class action nursing home negligence lawsuits.

As the first wave subsided and society returned to a semblance of normalcy, Ontario stakeholders examined what went wrong at hard hit facilities like Orchard Villa in Pickering and Lundy Manor in Niagara Falls.

“That is one of the most damning failures that’s taken place through the pandemic,” said Dr. Andrew Boozary, executive director of health and social policy at the University Health Network, to CBC News about the springtime failures of Ontario’s long-term care system. “If we were going to be judged by how we protected our most susceptible and people who are structurally vulnerable – we failed them.”

Experts carried out post-mortems and delivered recommendations for responding to future outbreaks. There was mild hope that the disaster would serve as a warning against future negligence. Numerous stakeholders called for the implementation of national care standards, including the Prime Minister.

“We will be working with the provinces and territories to set new national standards on long-term care,” Justin Trudeau announced at a news conference. “The systems we had were inadequate all across the country. They were not up to the task of protecting our seniors appropriately.”

In July, a report from the Royal Society of Canada, an association of leading scholars and scientists, called on the federal government to “immediately” enact national care standards. That call was echoed by Toronto physician and health-justice advocate Dr. Naheed Dosani in a CBC interview.

“They already suffered in the first wave,” Dr. Dosani said. “My hope is that they don’t have to suffer and less people have to die in the second wave. Why would we allow this to happen in the second wave? The federal government has the ability to set that bar where it needs to be so that standard of care is met so that doesn’t have to happen again.”

In addition to calls for a national care standard, various infection control and long-term care experts submitted to the Government of Ontario recommendations for avoiding a deadly second wave in the province’s long-term care homes. One group delivered those recommendations in a 60-page letter to Premier Doug Ford, which read: “In the absence of these measures and support from the government, Ontario’s long-term care homes are not currently ready to manage a second wave of COVID-19.”

“We don’t want to see the same kind of disasters that we were seeing in the spring where we had all these people dying and the people that were living were basically living in squalor,” infectious disease expert Dr. Anna Banerji told the CBC. “If that occurs again, it’s a real failure.

By the end of September, a second wave of infections had taken hold in Ontario. The province recorded a new single-day infection record on September 28, and analysts predicted new infections would peak at more than 1,000 per day by mid- to late-October. Any hope that long-term care facilities would be better prepared for the second wave quickly disappeared. At least 20 nursing homes reported outbreaks by September 21, including West End Villa, in Ottawa, where at least 15 residents have died.

The Province failed to implement many of the recommendations delivered following the first wave. In Quebec, 8,000 long-term care workers were hired in preparation for a new wave of infections; 7,000 were hired in British Columbia. Ontario did not conduct a similar hiring blitz.

“British Columbia has about half of the long-term care residents as compared to Ontario but only had one-tenth of the deaths,” Dr. Amit Arya told CTV News. “We have yet to see a similar response in Ontario.”

Even beyond the province’s failure to enact emergency infection control measures, and beyond the federal government’s failure to deliver national care guidelines, Ontario’s long-term care system has for years faced a litany of challenges, including understaffing and overcrowding, which compounded its COVID-19 failures. These challenges are also the source of numerous nursing home negligence lawsuits over the years.

“Even before the pandemic we had one nurse looking after you know, 32 residents in the day and over 60 at night and that’s not feasible, and obviously, as we can imagine, those staffing ratios are even worse since the pandemic started,” Arya said.

If you or a member of your family has been affected by a COVID-19 outbreak in an Ontario nursing home, contact Will Davidson LLP today to schedule a free, no-obligation consultation with an experienced nursing home negligence lawyer. Our team has already initiated several class proceedings against long-term care facilities who failed to provide a reasonable standard of care during the first wave of the pandemic. We would be happy to review your claim and provide guidance on how to move forward.

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Details Emerge from Orchard Villa’s Fight Against COVID-19 Outbreak

Dozens of nursing homes across the Province of Ontario experienced large COVID-19 outbreaks during the height of the pandemic. None were affected more severely than Orchard Villa Retirement Community in Pickering. On May 25, 2020, Will Davidson LLP announced a COVID-19 class action lawsuit against Orchard Villa and its owner, Southbridge Care Homes. On June 23, the Statement of Claim was amended to include Extendicare (Canada) Inc., the home’s operator.

“When COVID-19 hit both the owners and managers of Orchard Villa were woefully unprepared to deal with the crisis,” said Gary Will, the lead counsel on the case and a Will Davidson LLP partner, in a statement. “Orchard Villa has the very highest death rate in a long term care facility in Ontario with 85 deaths and a total of 269 infections. This home was grossly mismanaged. Extendicare and Southbridge must be held to account and there must be justice for the residents and their families.”

On June 11, the Durham Region medical officer of health declared the COVID-19 outbreak at Orchard Villa ended. In the following months, a clearer picture of the full scope of the outbreak has emerged, as well as a better understanding of what went wrong.

According to a recent report in the Toronto Star, ‘inspectors from the Ministry of Long-Term Care acting on a complaint found more than a dozen instances in which the home failed to comply with regulations’ in May and June. These failures included:

  • Not training staff on infection control and containment within a week of hiring, a regulation instituted by the Ministry in March in direct response to the pandemic,
  • Not providing an adequate skin assessment to a fallen resident, and,
  • Not preventing the administration of an unprescribed medication to a resident.

Additionally, when Lakeridge Health assumed temporary management of the facility at the medical officer’s request in June, it found that the home was “significantly understaffed.”

Speaking with the Star, Patricia Spindel, co-founder of the advocacy group Seniors For Social Action Ontario, said: “Clearly the oversight of that facility has been in my view negligent on the face of it because you see no director’s orders issues, you see no licence revocations, you see no ceases admissions. That speaks to oversight that is off the rails.”

Also speaking with the Star, Laura Tamblyn, CEO of national seniors’ advocacy group CanAge, said: “We know that when there’s consistent failure to comply and where the outcomes are dangerous to residents, that there needs to be not just appropriate support but appropriate response, which means there needs to be teeth in the inspection and legislation. What we’ve seen with COVID is not so much a surprise but just an illumination of the problems in the system that we always knew were there. The question is: will we now actually fix it?”

Orchard Villa’s failures were particularly egregious given their surrounding circumstances. The home’s owner, operator, and staff should have redoubled efforts to ensure residents’ safety with the knowledge that COVID-19 poses unique risks to the sick and elderly. However, as Laura Tamblyn alluded to, the failures were part of an established pattern of inadequate care at the home.

“Orchard Villa was investigated by the Ministry of Long Term Care on nineteen occasions from 2017 to 2019 in response to specific complaints concerning serious deficiencies in the level of care at Orchard Villa,” said Gary Will, in the same statement. “The Ministry spent over 43 days at Orchard Villa investigating the complaints. The Ministry issued 65 written warnings, 32 voluntary plans of correction, 12 compliance orders, and referred 3 matters to the Director.”

Family members of Orchard Villa residents are desperate for change and eager to the hold the facility to account. Sylvia Lyon is the representative plaintiff in our COVID-19 class action. Her mother, a resident at the facility, died from the illness in April.

“My mother was a good, decent individual who had overcome many obstacles in her life,” Lyon said in a statement. “We entrusted her care to the owners of Orchard Villa. In addition to the amounts many families paid to have their mothers and fathers looked after, Orchard Villa received over $11 million in funding each and every year from the Ontario government. Yet each year the care provided was less and less. There needs to be accountability to the taxpayers of the province and to the families of residents who passed away over the last two months.”

Speaking with the Star, June Morrison, whose father George was also a resident at Orchard Villa and also died of COVID-19, said: “I personally think they need their license revoked. They have proven time after time based on the inspection reports that they fail to live up to regulations and legislation.”

Contact Will Davidson LLP to Learn More About our COVID-19 Class Action

If your family has been affected by the COVID-19 outbreak at Orchard Villa or any other long-term care facility in Ontario, contact Will Davidson LLP today to schedule a free, no-obligation consultation. In addition to our COVID-19 class action against Orchard Villa, our team is investigating or actively pursuing claims against several other facilities. Learn more here.

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Ontario Grapples with Growing Trial Backlog Amid COVID-19

As the country gradually rolls back COVID-19 lockdown measures, court systems across Canada are considering how to safely reopen their doors. In Ontario, where courts already faced a significant backlog, there have been no jury trials and limited judge-only trials since a state of emergency was declared in March. As a result, numerous personal injury lawyers and their clients are facing delays on the road to compensation.

The province is considering a number of options to alleviate the backlog, including the suspension or elimination of jury trials for certain civil proceedings. In early June, Ontario Attorney General Doug Downey sought input from legal stakeholders on this matter.

“The needs of the justice sector have changed during this outbreak, and the demands on the system will continue to evolve as we begin to see the province reopening in stages,” the Attorney General wrote in a letter to stakeholders. “To address these changes, we will continue to act on the guidance of public health experts, and we will continue to work together to develop new ways of conducting matters.”

Assembling a jury is one of the most time-consuming aspects of any civil trial. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic will make the process even more difficult. Proponents of eliminating or suspending jury trials say it would allow Ontario to work through its backlog more quickly and provide greater access to justice for a larger number of claimants.

The proposal has support among some personal injury lawyers. One Windsor-based law firm issued a statement reading:

“Although we truly value our clients’ right to have a jury of peers decide their case, the realities of COVID-19 mean that our clients will suffer many more years of delay to get their cases to court. COVID-19 has closed our courts to jury trials. Eliminating juries will avoid more delay because we can immediately try cases ‘online/remotely’ before a single judge.”

In his letter, the Attorney General proposed keeping juries for matters that “engage community values and person’s character, such as defamation false imprisonment, and malicious prosecution.”

The Ontario Trial Lawyers Association (OTLA) also supports a temporary jury trial suspension. In an open letter to the Attorney General’s office, it stated that “the biggest hurdle for many of the postponed and upcoming trials will be constituting juries.”

Steve Rastin, a former president of the OTLA, spoke glowingly of Downey’s letter to Canadian Lawyer.

“I think it’s bold, I think it’s appropriate,” he said. “I think what the attorney general is doing is giving some thought to how are we going to deal with the massive backlog that’s in the system right now.”

“The attorney general is showing inspired leadership. What he’s doing is looking at a fundamental change in our system to help maybe put Ontario back together and back on track in terms of access to justice.”

Rastin’s enthusiasm isn’t shared by all. The Toronto Lawyers Association (TLA) stated in a submission to the Attorney General that jury trials are essential in Ontario due to the province’s unique social makeup.

“Against this social backdrop, civil juries provide a vast array of life experiences including different socioeconomic, racial, cultural and gender-based perspectives,” wrote TLA President Brett Harrison.

There is also concern that eliminating jury trials is an inappropriate solution to an issue that could be solved through modernization and investment. As one Toronto personal injury lawyer asked CTV News: “People keep talking about how it’s too slow and it’s an access to justice issue, but what about devoting the resources they should have done in the first place?”

“There should have been more resources thrown at the judicial system well before this, and I think it’s just convenient now to use the pandemic as an excuse to eliminate or get rid of juries,” they continued.  

Even Steve Rastin agrees that Ontario’s court system is falling behind on implementing new technology.

“[What] we’ve realized is that our jurisdiction has not gone nearly as far down the road to modernization as some other jurisdictions in the world,” he said. “In the United States, they’re doing virtual motions, virtual trials, virtual appeals, they have widespread access to court records electronically and things like that.”

The province has several options to address its growing trial backlog. It can eliminate civil jury trials altogether, it can reduce or suspend jury trials, it can bring in new technology to allow trials to proceed remotely, or it can choose another path. Regardless of the decision, it must be made quickly: the province’s backlog is growing every day and preventing seriously injured accident victims from accessing the compensation they need.

If you’ve been injured in an accident, contact Will Davidson LLP today to schedule a free, no-obligation consultation. Our experienced team of personal injury lawyers will assess your case and lay out your options for pursuing a claim. Contact us today to learn more.

How Has COVID-19 Affected Road Safety?

At the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, road safety experts, including personal injury lawyers, attempted to predict how shelter-at-home measures would impact motor vehicle accident rates and driver behaviour. It was assumed, for example, that wide lockdowns would limit the use of personal automobiles, and that that would in turn reduce the number of serious accidents.

Around the time that the pandemic took hold in North America, the Global Alliance of NGOs for Road Safety compiled a list of factors that might affect road safety during and after the lockdowns. Below, we’ll look at a few key predictions and assess their accuracy.

There Will Be Fewer People on the Roads

The Global Alliance was correct in predicting that personal automobile use would decline amid the lockdowns. This effect has been noted around the world.

Unfortunately, the Alliance – and many personal injury lawyers – also guessed that fewer journeys would lead to fewer crashes. New data suggest this has not been the case. In the United States, a report from the National Safety Council (NSC) showed a 14 per cent year-over-year increase in fatality rates per distance driven in March. While overall traffic deaths – a figure that includes fatalities among drivers, passengers, pedestrians, and cyclists – were down 8 per cent, the overall number of miles driven was down 18 per cent, meaning road users are actually more likely to be killed than during the same period last year.

The numbers are equally discouraging in Ontario, where the OPP reported 71 deaths on patrolled roads as of May 4, up from 61 deaths during the same period in 2019. In both the United States and Ontario, speed appears to be a key factor.

“Disturbingly, we have open lanes of traffic and an apparent open season on reckless driving,” said NSC President Lorraine M Martin, according to the BBC. “Right now, in the midst of a global pandemic and crisis, we should take it as our civic duty to drive safely.”

“If we don’t do it for ourselves,” she added, “we should do it for our first responders, our law enforcement and our healthcare workers, who are rightly focused on coronavirus patients and should not be overwhelmed by preventable car crashes.”

Of the 71 deaths in Ontario, 17 were linked to speeding.

“We aren’t invincible,” said Lewis Smith, Canada Safety Council’s coordinator of communications, to Global News. “Speed may seem like a good idea because the roads are open, and you think you’re not putting anyone at risk, but the truth is risk can come in a hurry. Speed incenses the likelihood of something happening you don’t have time to react too.”

Even before it became apparent that lighter traffic would not lead to fewer deaths, safety experts were concerned about cars eventually returning to the roads.

“Some radio programs and news reels are showing empty streets and realizing that it’s true that there are no road crashes because of this, but what will happen when we all go out again?” asked Viviam Perrone of Argentina’s Asociación Civil Madres del Dolor in a Global Alliance article. “… we should learn to live with our foot off the accelerator when we return to the streets.”

Fewer People Will Use Public Transit

It was expected at the onset of the pandemic that mass transit ridership would plummet – this has played out as expected. It is unlikely that riders will return to public transit in the near future.

From a road safety perspective, this is a problem. Traveling via mass transit is in general much safer than travelling in a personal automobile. If fewer people choose to take mass transit in the near future, that will mean more automobiles on the road and, in all likelihood, more accidents.

If cities want to avoid a major spike in traffic accidents as their lockdowns are lifted, they must encourage commuters to travel on foot or by bicycle as much as possible. They must also develop strategies for effectively sanitizing public transit vehicles and restoring public trust.

Road Safety Strategies Will be Put on Hold

The City of Toronto is already familiar with the challenges of implementing a comprehensive road safety strategy; even before the pandemic, it struggled to make progress with its Vision Zero approach. As public resources are reallocated to deal with COVID-19, personal injury lawyers fear that road safety measures will tumble down the list of priorities. There is also concern that public messaging and awareness campaigns around road safety will be drowned out by the deserved focus on the virus.

“In general, it would seem that most of the public will be distracted, from road safety messages and that perhaps some of what we road safety advocates might usually be doing might need to wait until COVID comes under control,” said University of Washington Global Health professor Carlie Mock in the Global Alliance article.

Contact an Experienced Personal Injury Lawyer

If you or a member of your family has been injured in a traffic accident amid COVID-19, contact Will Davidson LLP today to schedule a free, no-obligation consultation. Our team of personal injury lawyers is continuing to accept new clients throughout the lockdown. Don’t hesitate to be in touch with any questions or concerns.

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People with Disabilities, Including Spinal and Brain Injury Victims, are at Elevated Risk from COVID-19

Everyone has been affected by the spread of COVID-19, but the most serious impacts have been felt by marginalized and at-risk populations: the elderly, homeless people, people with pre-existing medical conditions, people with addictions, racial and social minorities, and survivors of serious injuries. Among personal injury lawyers, there is significant concern that current and former clients do not have access to the necessary supports. Long-term care facilities, which sometimes house brain and spinal injury survivors, are hotbeds for the virus, and injury victims living at home may find themselves suddenly isolated.

Below, we’ll discuss some of the unique challenges faced by survivors of serious injuries amid this unprecedented global health emergency.

Long-Term Care Fears

Canada has been relatively effective in controlling the spread of COVID-19 in the general population. Long-term care homes have been less successful: roughly half of all COVID-19 deaths have occurred in these facilities.

The situation is so bleak that family members are removing loved ones, even when the chances of readmission are slim. Unfortunately, this approach highlights another concern for personal injury lawyers: how will injury survivors living at home access medical care under social distancing guidelines? Speaking to CTV News Toronto, an Ontario woman who removed her husband from long-term care articulated the issue:

“My concerns are – he no longer has a doctor,” said Barbara Heuman. “His doctor took care of him for three-and-a-half years while he was at Dufferin Oaks, but I was told they are no longer able to care of him. So when they sent me home from Dufferin Oaks yesterday, I got one week’s medication, that’s it.”

Lack of Access to Medical Care

For many seriously injured accident victims, recovery is a lifelong pursuit that requires consistent medical care and attention. Spinal and brain injury victims often undergo years of rehabilitation, chiropractic therapy, and physiotherapy, often in clinical settings.

Access to these services may be limited for months or years. Medical professionals in Canada are all-hands-on-deck in the fight against COVID-19 – those who are unable to help on the front lines are avoiding hospitals and emergency wards as much as possible. For injury victims, a sudden and indefinite pause in treatment can be damaging to the recovery process.

Brain injury survivors may also lose access to social services such as occupational therapy and attendant care.

Mental Health Concerns

In a March 31 article for the Prince George Citizen, Diane Nakamura, a brain injury survivor, described some of the day-to-day symptoms that many survivors experience.

“Suffering from anxiety and depression,” she wrote. “Not having enough energy in a day to complete necessary tasks. Inability to cook because of poor memory and sequencing issues. Dealing with financial stress because of lost employment. Not understanding important letters or phone calls due to cognitive deficits. Experiencing conflict with family members and friends who don’t understand the limitations survivors have. Possessing low self-esteem and confidence because of the significant life changes after brain injury. Not feeling normal or accepted by their personal network and the community.”

Many of these issues, Nakamura wrote, have been aggravated by the strict social distancing measures necessary to limit the virus’s spread. Brain injury survivors have less access to mental health resources than they did at the beginning of the year, and fewer opportunities to connect with friends and family in-person.

Lack of Financial or Government Support

Some injury victims coping with this new reality feel left behind. Activists say governments have failed to consider injury survivors in their COVID-19 responses. The little support that has been offered is considered woefully insufficient.

“As families who are supporting our sons and daughters with disabilities, who live with us in the community – we feel forgotten. We’re not even on the radar,” said Robin Acton, whose daughter has Down syndrome, to CBC News Edmonton in April.

“We as a family are incredibly fearful of what happens if our daughter gets sick and has to go to the hospital,” she added. “She’s going to need me or her dad there to help her understand and interpret what’s going on. She would be absolutely terrified.”

In Ontario, the provincial government has made additional resources available to people with disability through the Ontario Disability Support Program. However, community representatives say the additional benefits – up to $100 for individuals and up to $200 for families – are simply not enough.

“We are part of a community that is often just an afterthought,” said Nadine Law, co-founder of Sudbury not-for-profit Access2all, to Sudbury.com. “My clients and I are not being recognized or taken care of. It wasn’t until this pandemic that I realized my voice had to get a little bit louder.”

Contact a Personal Injury Lawyer Today

Crises tend to highlight the gap between the haves and have-nots in our society, and the COVID-19 pandemic is no exception. As personal injury lawyers dealing with seriously injured accident victims, Will Davidson LLP is committed to providing legal support for some of Ontario’s most vulnerable populations. If you or a member of your family has been injured in an accident, contact us today to schedule a free, no-obligation consultation.

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COVID-19 and Nursing Home Negligence

Long-term care facilities are ground zero in the fight against COVID-19 in Canada. Unfortunately, some facilities are losing the battle. As of mid-April, nearly half of all Canadian COVID-19 deaths occurred in long-term care residences. That figure has caused concern among healthcare experts, patients’ rights advocates, and nursing home negligence lawyers.

In Quebec, where more than 30 seniors perished between mid-March and mid-April in a facility near Montreal, Premier Francois Legault said the deaths may have been caused by “gross negligence.” Prime Minister Justin Trudeau also commented, saying: “We recognize the terrible and tragic stories that have come out of seniors’ residences and long-term care facilities across the country. We know we need to do more.”

The first serious outbreak occurred at Lynn Valley Care Centre in North Vancouver in March. Seventy-eight COVID-19 cases were confirmed, and 20 people died. At least 21 people have died in a residence in Laval, Quebec. And in Ontario, 29 people have died at Pinecrest Nursing Home in Bobcaygeon, 33 have died at Eatonville Care Centre in Toronto, and 23 have died at Anson Place Care Centre in Hagersville.

Canada’s chief public health officer, Dr. Theresa Tam, said: “These heart-breaking events underscored the need for stringent infection prevention and control measures and led to the development of infection prevention and control guidance for long-term care homes.”

The provincial governments in Quebec, Alberta, and British Columbia have taken over operation of certain homes. Ontario hasn’t gone that far, despite pleas from the Services Employees International Union (SEIU), which represents more 60,000 frontline healthcare workers. The union has criticized several facilities in Ontario where severe outbreaks have taken hold.

“They did not put into action what needed to be done,” said president Sharleen Stewart, according to the CBC. “This was pure negligence.”

In other words, despite the unprecedented spread of COVID-19 in Canada, and despite the fact that seniors are particularly susceptible to the disease, it is believed that certain COVID-19 deaths in nursing homes could have been avoided. Liability may extend beyond the facilities’ employees.

In Quebec, where nursing home negligence lawyers are already considering at least one class action claim, a medical malpractice lawyer told Global News that “it seems there has been serious neglect on the part of the residence, but also on the part of the CIUSSS, who was supposed to support the residence.”

In other words, these deaths may have been avoided but for the structural, systemic issues within Canada’s long-term care systems, many of which are underfunded and understaffed. The federal and provincial governments have issued a variety of new guidelines since March – new cleaning procedures, mandatory medical screenings, mealtime social distancing, etc. – but critics say they are too little, too late.

“This wasn’t just foreseeable, it was foreseen,” said Laura Tamblyn Watts, CEO of seniors’ advocacy organization CanAge, to the CBC. “We saw it coming it Italy. We saw it coming in Spain, let alone what was happening in Asia. And we knew that people in long-term care facilities would be left without the care they need.”

“This is not new,” added Toronto geriatrician Dr. Nathan Stall, a fellow at the Women’s College Research Institute. “It’s just taken a global pandemic to unearth the problems that affect almost every aspect of the sector.”

Some industry veterans are finding reasons for optimism amid the catastrophe.

“I think there will be change out of it because it is hitting so many people right across the province as well as the country,” said Tom Carrothers, a long-time volunteer with Family Council Network 4 Advocacy, also to the CBC. “I can guarantee you that groups like ours will be sure to keep it moving.”

However, there will be many more months of pain and distress before progress is made. On April 20, the Province of Ontario released new modelling suggesting the spread of COVID-19 had peaked in the general population but was continuing to accelerate in long-term care facilities. As healthcare workers fight to bring the disease under control, nursing home negligence lawyers will consider whether legal action is appropriate. Will Davidson LLP is currently investigating COVID-19-related deaths at Lundy Manor Retirement Residence in Niagara Falls, Ontario. Learn more about that case here: https://www.willdavidson.ca/lundy-manor-covid-19/.

If a member of your family has been injured or become ill as a result of negligence at a long-term care facility, contact Will Davidson LLP today to schedule a free, no-obligation consultation. Our team of nursing home negligence lawyers will review your case and explain your legal options.

Will Davidson LLP’s lawyers remain hard at work during the COVID-19 pandemic. Not only are we working diligently to advance existing claims, but we are also accepting new clients who have been injured during these unprecedented times. If you’ve been injured in any way, don’t hesitate to reach out. Our team is proud to offer services on a contingency basis, meaning we won’t be paid until your case has been successfully resolved. 

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